1893 Mthwakazi Restoration Movement

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State of Mthwakazi – Treaties and concessions that King Lobhengula was robbed into signing by the British and the South African Boers

The Matebeleland Order in Council of 1923 – was also used to change the name Mthwakazi to Matebeleland, by the British.

The Jameson Line named after Leander Starr Jameson who drew the boundary between Mthwakazi and Mashonaland.


Sir Leander Starr Jameson

The Matebeleland Rule by Conquest

1919 land conference when the State of Mthwakazi was declared defunct and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council declared Queen Victoria had succeeded King Lobhengula

The Berlin Conference of 1885 determined that colonial powers should draw boundaries between their claims to minimize conflict between the scrambling powers. This treaty was ratified in Verssalles in France in 1886.

Independent African states, obeying the rules of international treaties, have through the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) declared as sacrosanct the boundaries set up by colonial powers.

The Jameson Line Boundary between Mashonaland and the State of Mthwakazi, was established by an act of the British Parliament in June 1891

Mention about the Jameson Line first became known only in 1893 when Leander Starr Jameson sent armed troopers led by Capt Lendy to force Lobhengula’s warrior across the “boundary” which was unknown to them. This led to what became as the Victoria Incident during which Lendy and his men murdered 30 of Lobhengula’s warriors including its leader, Prince Mgandane without provocation.

This incident was precipitated as a pretext to invade the kingdom for which a secret agreement had been signed in Fort Victoria signed with 672 white mercenaries supported by an equal number of black batmen, predominantly from Mashonaland only weeks before. The Victoria Secret Agreement was signed for the British South Africa Company by Capt. Alan Wilson on 19 July 1893 barely two months before the October invasion of Mthwakazi.

British South Africa Company. Charges were later made in the British House of Commons against the company, accusing them of having provoked the Ndebele in order to secure their territory. However, after enquiry the company was exonerated from the charge by Lord Ripon, the Colonial Secretary. George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon.


George Frederick Samuel Robinson, Leader of the House of Lords in Britain (1905 to 1908), the man who ruled in favor of the British South African Company taking over the Kingdom of Mthwakazi by force.

George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon KG GCSI CIE VD PC (24 October 1827 – 9 July 1909), styled Viscount Goderich from 1833 to 1859 and known as the Earl of Ripon in 1859 and as the Earl de Grey and Ripon from 1859 to 1871, was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until the year before his death, which took place forty-eight years later.

The Moffat Treaty 1888

Like his more famous father, Moffat was a Congregationalist minister affiliated with the London Missionary Society but he became involved in British colonial expansion particularly in Matabeleland, later part of Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.

His missionary work included helping to start the first mission in Matabeleland in 1859, and in 1865 he took over the running of his father's mission in Kuruman. In 1879 he resigned from the missionary society and joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. In 1888 at the instigation of Cecil Rhodes he was sent to Matabeleland to use his father's reputation to persuade its king Lobhengula to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain and to look favorably on Rhodes' later approach for the Rudd Concession mining rights.

Having succeeded, Moffat discovered later the extent of Rhodes' deception of Lobhengula and the deceit behind numerous concessions negotiated by Rhodes' British South Africa Company, BSAC. He fell out with Rhodes when the latter provoked Lobhengula into the First Matabele War so he could take that country.

King Lobhengula signed the Moffat Treaty that proclaimed that “peace and amity shall continue for ever between Her Britannic Majesty, Her subjects, and the Amandebele people.” Moreover, Lobhengula promised to refrain from entering into “any correspondence or treaty with any Foreign State or Power.”

But what about the Grobler treaty that he’d signed not long ago? It took some wheeling and dealing back in London to take care of this problem, but within two months the British government came up with a devious justification to satisfy any scruples. Prime Minister Lord Salisbury declared that the Moffat treaty superseded the Grobler treaty because the London Convention of 1884 precluded the Transvaal from making treaties with any state apart from the other Boer republic—the Orange Free State. The Boers were allowed to make treaties with individual “native tribes,” but not with the Matabele, who—Salisbury said—constituted a nation rather than a tribe.

With that detail out of the way, the treaty was announced publicly April 1888. A formal relation had been established between the British and Matabele peoples, and the way was now clear for Cecil Rhodes to make a big move...

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John Smith Moffat – The negotiator of the Moffat Treaty

Rudd Concession 1888

Charles Rudd, the man that facilitated the British government's theft of Mthwakazi

The concession conferred on the grantees the sole rights to mine throughout Lobhengula's country, as well as the power to defend this exclusivity by force, in return for weapons and a regular monetary stipend. Starting in early 1889, the king repeatedly tried to disavow the document on the grounds of alleged deceit by the concessionaires regarding the settled terms; he insisted that restrictions on the grantees' activities had been agreed orally, and apparently considered these part of the contract even though the written text had been translated and repeatedly explained to him just before he signed it. He attempted to persuade the British government to deem the concession invalid, among other things sending emissaries to meet Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, but these efforts proved unsuccessful.

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Text of the Rudd Concession

Tati Concessions Land 1870

The Tati Concessions Land was a concession created in the borderlands of the Matabele kingdom and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. The concession was originally made by the Matabele King to Sir John Swinburne. It was administered from the Bechuanaland Protectorate after 1893, but after 1911 was formally annexed to it, finally becoming a statutory creature by its first piece of legislation, the Proclamation Number 2 of 1911 by the High Commissioner of Bechuanaland. It was locally administered by a Justice of the Peace.

The chief town of this region is Francistown, now one of Botswana's major settlements.

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Baines Concession 1871

Thomas Baines

Thomas Baines sailed for England in 1864 and the following year his album of prints, The Victoria Falls, Zambezi River was published by Day & Son. He returned to South Africa in December 1867 and in 1869, from Durban, was chosen, on behalf of the South African Goldfields Exploration Company, to lead an adventurous expedition to meet Mthwakazi King Mzilikazi. Mzilikazi, however, had died before Baines reached him. In 1871 he was granted a concession by King Lobhengula, King of the Mthwakazi nation, to explore for gold between the Khwelo and Hunyani rivers. In 1873 he visited the Injembe district of Natal to investigate gold deposits and attended King Cetshwayo's coronation. However, while in the process of writing an account of his expeditions in South Africa, Baines fell ill and died in Durban in May 1875. (Baines's goldfield concession, which gathered dust for many years, was purchased by Cecil Rhodes in 1889.)

Lippert’s Treaty/Lippert’s Concession 1890

In desperation, Lobhengula granted land and mineral rights to a Johannesburg businessman in an effort to weaken Rhodes’ position. However, Rhodes knew about the transaction and bought the concession from Lippert thus strengthening his position.

Lobhengula next tried diplomacy, an art in which he had never excelled. He gave a concession to Edouard Lippert from Johannesburg in the Boer Republic. Lippert was to make an annual payment to Lobhengula for a lease which gave him the right to grant, lease, or rent parts of Ndebele land in his name for 100 years. This attempt to play the Boers against the British was Lobhengula's undoing. Lippert turned round and sold the concession to the very company Lobhengula had expelled. The company cut up Lobhengula's land and distributed the promised farms to the pioneers. (Extract from History of Zimbabwe Myths and Facts – facebook page).

Grobler Treaty 1887

This treaty was signed between Piet Grobler and King Lobhengula in 1887, representing the Boer republic of the Transvaal. The treaty was also known as the “Friendship treaty”. It stipulated that there would be everlasting peace between the Ndebele and the Boer Republics. It was a lie -there was never going to be everlasting peace since they had deceived Lobhengula. The treaty recognised Lobhengula as the paramount Chief / King (this statement was true/genuine because Lobhengula was the ruling King who had conquered the other States) and was supposed to be an ally from then onward. The treaty committed Lobhengula to provide military assistance to Transvaal or to the Boers whenever asked (in the face of the British threat) (it was not a balanced statement because the Boers were not made to provide any assistance -a sign of selfishness) they were only interested in their own interests/hidden agendas, there was to be a permanent representative of Transvaal in Bulawayo-(but they did not ask Lobhengula to send his representatives to the Transvaal) and Lobhengula was to protect Boers who visited Zimbabwe. Lobhengula was illiterate, he could not identify whom a Boer was / but no clause allowed Lobhengula to send his people to the Transvaal under the Boer’s protection. King Lobhengula was required to catch and repatriate all criminals who escaped from the Transvaal. Hunters and adventurers would be allowed into Lobhengula’s territory without hindrance. The Boer Republic would appoint a representative who would stay in Lobhengula’s Kingdom. Lobhengula was not allowed to administer justice to the Boers in his Kingdom .The content of the whole treaty was in favour of the Boers. It gave nothing in return to Lobhengula. (Extract from History of Zimbabwe Myths and Facts – facebook page).

The British South Africa Company

The British Hitler of the Kingdom of Mthwakazi – Their flag & logo.

The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing. The company received a Royal Charter in 1889 modelled on that of the British East India Company. Its first directors included the Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes himself and the South African financier Alfred Beit. Rhodes hoped BSAC would promote colonisation and economic exploitation across much of south-central Africa, as part of the "Scramble for Africa". However, his main focus was south of the Zambezi, in Mashonaland and the coastal areas to its east, from which he believed the Portuguese could be removed by payment or force, and in the Transvaal, which he hoped would return to British control.

The invasion of what was termed Mashonaland under Cecil John Rhodes' British South Africa Company (BSAC) in September 1890 was conducted by 200 settlers under the protection of 500 BSAC policemen (the "Pioneer Column"), and there they founded the settlement of Salisbury (Harare) (Encyclopaedia of the Nations 2007; Wikipedia 2007c). Masholaland was chosen above Matebeleland because the Ndebele forces of King Lobhengula were too powerful to attack immediately and directly (Wikipedia 2007c). In 1891 Mashonaland was declared a British Protectorate by an Order in Council (Parliament of Zimbabwe Undated). The territory, originally known as Zambezia, was commonly called "Rhodesia" after 1895; in 1898 it was officially renamed "Southern Rhodesia" (Wikipedia 2007c; Esterhuysen 2004). (Source: https://eisa.org.za/wep/zimoverview1.htm )

The Lancaster House Agreement of 1979 – the Agreement that deceived the political leadership of Mthwakazi nation. 

Proceedings During the Lancaster Talks

The Lancaster House Agreement was a political consensus which brought the independence of Zimbabwe from Rhodesian rule. The agreement came into being after a series of negotiations between the nationalist parties and the Rhodesian Front between September and December 1979. The Agreement was facilitated by the British and the American governments to being to an end the 14 year war in Rhodesia between the Rhodesians and the guerrilla movements.

Countries in attendance during the talks

Britain (Host)

1. United States of America

2. Tanzania

3. Mozambique

4. Zambia

5. Rhodesia.

Political Movements and Representatives

1. The Rhodesian Front- Ian Smith

2. Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)- Robert Mugabe

3. Zimbabwe African Patriotic Front (ZAPU)- Joshua Nkomo

4. The United African National Congress (UANC)- Bishop Abel Muzorewa

The Constitution of Zimbabwe -  as amended in 2005

It is interesting to note that by 1999, the government of Zimbabwe is said to have amended the constitution of that country more than 20 times.  One wonders what such amendments were meant to hide or conceal ahead of the gross human rights violations and war crimes committed by that government. Also of major importance would be the fact that the amendments to the constitution allowed for many processes of the swift tribal genocide and gukurahundi to be lawfully perpetrated with impunity. 

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