State of Mthwakazi – Treaties and concessions that King Lobhengula was robbed into signing by the British and the South African Boers
The Matebeleland Order in Council of 1923 – was also used to change the name Mthwakazi to Matebeleland, by the British.
The Jameson Line named after Leander Starr Jameson who drew the boundary between Mthwakazi and Mashonaland.
Sir Leander Starr Jameson
The Matebeleland Rule by Conquest
1919 land conference when the State of Mthwakazi was declared defunct and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council declared Queen Victoria had succeeded King Lobhengula
The Berlin Conference of 1885 determined that colonial powers should draw boundaries between their claims to minimize conflict between the scrambling powers. This treaty was ratified in Verssalles in France in 1886.
Independent African states, obeying the rules of international treaties, have through the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) declared as sacrosanct the boundaries set up by colonial powers.
The Jameson Line Boundary between Mashonaland and the State of Mthwakazi, was established by an act of the British Parliament in June 1891
Mention about the Jameson Line first became known only in 1893 when Leander Starr Jameson sent armed troopers led by Capt Lendy to force Lobhengula’s warrior across the “boundary” which was unknown to them. This led to what became as the Victoria Incident during which Lendy and his men murdered 30 of Lobhengula’s warriors including its leader, Prince Mgandane without provocation.
This incident was precipitated as a pretext to invade the kingdom for which a secret agreement had been signed in Fort Victoria signed with 672 white mercenaries supported by an equal number of black batmen, predominantly from Mashonaland only weeks before. The Victoria Secret Agreement was signed for the British South Africa Company by Capt. Alan Wilson on 19 July 1893 barely two months before the October invasion of Mthwakazi.
British South Africa Company. Charges were later made in the British House of Commons against the company, accusing them of having provoked the Ndebele in order to secure their territory. However, after enquiry the company was exonerated from the charge by Lord Ripon, the Colonial Secretary. George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon.
George Frederick Samuel Robinson, Leader of the House of Lords in Britain (1905 to 1908), the man who ruled in favor of the British South African Company taking over the Kingdom of Mthwakazi by force.
George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon KG GCSI CIE VD PC (24 October 1827 – 9 July 1909), styled Viscount Goderich from 1833 to 1859 and known as the Earl of Ripon in 1859 and as the Earl de Grey and Ripon from 1859 to 1871, was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until the year before his death, which took place forty-eight years later.
The Moffat Treaty 1888
Like his more famous father, Moffat was a Congregationalist minister affiliated with the London Missionary Society but he became involved in British colonial expansion particularly in Matabeleland, later part of Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.
His missionary work included helping to start the first mission in Matabeleland in 1859, and in 1865 he took over the running of his father's mission in Kuruman. In 1879 he resigned from the missionary society and joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. In 1888 at the instigation of Cecil Rhodes he was sent to Matabeleland to use his father's reputation to persuade its king Lobhengula to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain and to look favorably on Rhodes' later approach for the Rudd Concession mining rights.
Having succeeded, Moffat discovered later the extent of Rhodes' deception of Lobhengula and the deceit behind numerous concessions negotiated by Rhodes' British South Africa Company, BSAC. He fell out with Rhodes when the latter provoked Lobhengula into the First Matabele War so he could take that country.
King Lobhengula signed the Moffat Treaty that proclaimed that “peace and amity shall continue for ever between Her Britannic Majesty, Her subjects, and the Amandebele people.” Moreover, Lobhengula promised to refrain from entering into “any correspondence or treaty with any Foreign State or Power.”
But what about the Grobler treaty that he’d signed not long ago? It took some wheeling and dealing back in London to take care of this problem, but within two months the British government came up with a devious justification to satisfy any scruples. Prime Minister Lord Salisbury declared that the Moffat treaty superseded the Grobler treaty because the London Convention of 1884 precluded the Transvaal from making treaties with any state apart from the other Boer republic—the Orange Free State. The Boers were allowed to make treaties with individual “native tribes,” but not with the Matabele, who—Salisbury said—constituted a nation rather than a tribe.
With that detail out of the way, the treaty was announced publicly April 1888. A formal relation had been established between the British and Matabele peoples, and the way was now clear for Cecil Rhodes to make a big move...
John Smith Moffat – The negotiator of the Moffat Treaty
Rudd Concession 1888
Charles Rudd, the man that facilitated the British government's theft of Mthwakazi
The concession conferred on the grantees the sole rights to mine throughout Lobhengula's country, as well as the power to defend this exclusivity by force, in return for weapons and a regular monetary stipend. Starting in early 1889, the king repeatedly tried to disavow the document on the grounds of alleged deceit by the concessionaires regarding the settled terms; he insisted that restrictions on the grantees' activities had been agreed orally, and apparently considered these part of the contract even though the written text had been translated and repeatedly explained to him just before he signed it. He attempted to persuade the British government to deem the concession invalid, among other things sending emissaries to meet Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, but these efforts proved unsuccessful.
Text of the Rudd Concession
Tati Concessions Land 1870
The Tati Concessions Land was a concession created in the borderlands of the Matabele kingdom and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. The concession was originally made by the Matabele King to Sir John Swinburne. It was administered from the Bechuanaland Protectorate after 1893, but after 1911 was formally annexed to it, finally becoming a statutory creature by its first piece of legislation, the Proclamation Number 2 of 1911 by the High Commissioner of Bechuanaland. It was locally administered by a Justice of the Peace.
The chief town of this region is Francistown, now one of Botswana's major settlements.
Baines Concession 1871