1893 Mthwakazi Restoration Movement

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King Mzilikazi, the father of Mthwakazi Nation

The Question of Mthwakazi: A Problem under Report in Brief

The problem under report is the Question of Mthwakazi, the struggle for the abolition of the more than 135 years Rule by Conquest of the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi which consist of over 87 years of the Racial Domination from 3 November 1893 to 18 April 1980, and over 37 years of the Tribal Domination from 19 April 1980 to the present date. The Rule by Conquest is a unique type of colonialism that is maintained by the reign of terror, deprivation situations against the conquered people and the reservation of opportunities in the interests of conquerors as the means of enforcing compliance of the conquered people to subjugation, consequently creating a gripping oppression psychosis among the conquered people. This type of oppression has extremely impoverished the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi and created deliberate and perpetual suffering to them for a century and over three decades on the present date, and without any break.  

The Kingdom of Mthwakazi was deposed by Britain on 3 November 1893 and declared a Rule by Conquest by the British South Africa Company (BSA Co) warlord Cecil John Rhodes on 19 December the same year. All the fruitful lands of Mthwakazi were partitioned as private estates which were given to the BSA Co mercenaries as the reward for conquering the land, while its people were evicted without compensation and forcefully exiled to the concentration camps called the Native Reserves where they were made a pool of forced and cheap labour through the British’s Matabeleland Order-inCouncil of 18 July 1894, in order to assist the mercenaries to develop their conquered properties easily. The Kingdom has remained under conquest to the present date. Its people are denied their right to self determination, including all the fundamental freedoms and human rights. 

After the Conquest of the Kingdom of Mthwakazi by the BSA Co. mercenaries on 3 November 1893, the conquerors called our land Matabeleland and ruled Mthwakazi jointly with another territory called MaShonaland alias Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is the homeland of a large population of the Shona people on the eastern side of Mthwakazi, which practices xenophobia in cooperation with Britain, against the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi. When Mthwakazi was conquered, Zimbabwe had been occupied peacefully three years earlier on 12 September 1890. In 1980 Britain decolonized Zimbabwe and transferred the Racial Domination into Tribal Domination through the machination of a skewed franchise in which Zimbabwe was granted 60 seats that afforded her, the right to self-determination and left Mthwakazi with 20 seats as a constitutional form of opposition under the same parliament with Zimbabwe.

When the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi raised concerns that Britain had not decolonized them in terms of the United Nation’s Declaration on granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (Resolution 1514 [XV]) of 1960. Britain quickly misrepresented the issues, created tremor and pandemonium in the two Territories and assisted Zimbabwe to perpetrate a devastating genocide which has pinned down the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi with the post traumatic shock and terrific terror that has caused an epidemic sense of refusal of the meaning of daily realities among the victims and survivors, in the form of oppression psychosis to the present date. The Whites who were instrumental in enforcing the Racial Domination were also granted 20 seats with 10 years guarantee during the transfer of domination. The former white conquerors quickly lost their status of superiority as soon as Tribal Domination was imposed. The transfer of power from the previous racial domination turned upside down the racial relations and included them in the subjugation which they had designed when the black Zimbabweans started copying their old way of discriminatory governance. The former conquerors have now joined other nationals of the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi as victims of the Rule by Conquest on their own rights. 

Our history leaves behind the lessons that: The minorities are capable of oppressing the majority as it happened during the Racial Domination. Just as the majority can also oppress the minority as it is happening under the Tribal Domination. And people of the same race can oppress each other in the absence the rule of law. Therefore only a fair and free world with a proper order can make all the people enjoy freedom and their rights in a country and all over the world, because the Human Rights are there for our protection against the people who want to do harm or hurt us. They are also there to help us get along with each other and live in peace. The full circumstances surrounding our saga are long and hidden; hence we have a little bit long report though an attempt has been made to make it brief and concise. 

The Name of the Place under Report 

The place is called Mthwakazi. This word Mthwakazi is derived from the name of Queen Mu-Thwa, the first ruler of the Mthwakazi territory who ruled around 7,000 years ago. She was the matriarch of the Aba-Thwa, the San people who were derogatively called the Bushmen by the British conquerors. The deposed Kingdom of Mthwakazi is a land between Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers in Southern Africa which was derogatorily called Matabeleland by the British conquerors. 

The Homeland of the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi 

The territory of Mthwakazi was evolved through both geographical and historical factors: Geographical Factors: Geographically, Mthwakazi is a draught prone country east of the KalahariDesert, which is characterized by erratic rainfall which made it unfavourable for settlement to the precolonial communal societies of Southern Africa. Long ago it was mainly used for south and north migration between Southern Africa and Central Africa. However for the postindustrial revolution society, it is a wonderful treasure of natural resources ranging from minerals, wildlife game, timber forests, grasslands and tourist resources. It is a spacious land without overpopulation. Historical Factors: Historically, the homeland was a sanctuary for the overwhelmed and peripheralclicks and clans from the adjacent pre-colonial Kingdoms of Southern Africa. Aba-Thwa, the San

people are the earliest inhabitants of the land, and then from the north came the Tonga people, from the west the Tswana, from the south the Venda, Sotho, the Nguni, and from the east the Karanga of Mthwakazi to integrate with Aba-Thwa, hence the creation of the Inter-Cultural Society of Mthwakazi. 

The Territorial Status of the Kingdom of Mthwakazi

Before the conquest of Mthwakazi by the British South Africa Company on 3rd November 1893, the territory was an independent Kingdom whose territorial integrity was governed by the treaties with the Transvaal and England the two states which shared the four common borders with the Kingdom of Mthwakazi. The boundaries conform to the Berlin Conference Agreement of 1885 as ratified by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, consequently the United Nations in 1945.
{Contents of the above report were extracted from an original report by U MHLAHLO WE SIZWE SIKA MTHWAKAZI.  Click here to download the full report.}

Mthwakazi’s policy of assimilation.

Undoubtedly, this huge class of Mthwakazi came to have a big influence on the Mthwakazi culture, an influence that is evident even today. In the modern day Mthwakazi society these demarcations exist, but as strongly as they did by the fall of the Mthwakazi kingdom.

King Lobhengula Khumalo

Pictured here is Gampu kaMaqhekeni, sitting at the back and wearing head gear referred to as “indlukula”, Sitting infront of him is the Chief/ induna yakwaBulawayo uSivalo kaMvaleleni Mahlangu. Standing is the King himself,  inkosi uLobhengula. Sketch by a white former pioneer  whose last name was “Maud”.

One of the things Mthwakazi people pride themselves with is the efficient manner in which their pre-colonial  Kingdom known as UMTHWAKAZI was organised. The kingdom was so intelligently structured that many racist colonial historians were green with envy. What started off as a military set up evolved to become one of Africa's best governed polities. The following represents the structure that King Mzilikazi Khumalo and later King Lobhengula, established in Matabeleland in the 1830s. The country was divided into FOUR provinces of Amhlophe, Amnyama, Amakhanda and iGabha with their respective regimental towns: (research, Courtesy of Sigeca)


1. Insingo -Dlundluluza Dlodlo

2. Inxa -Ntshamane Khanye

3. Indinana -Mfangilele Matshazi

4. Inzwananzi -Mpiliwa Magutshwa

5. Insinda -Tshuwe Gwebu

6. Amazizi -Mhlambi Mzizi

7. Izinkondo -Sikhombo Mguni/Mnguni

8. Amakhwatha -Sungulwana Mthimkhulu

9. Umhlanjana -Manyoba Ndiweni

10. Godlwayo -Mkhatshana "Dambisamahubo" Mafu.


1. Umhlahlandlela (esigodlweni esikhulu) -Gwabalanda Mathe

2. Umhlahlandela (esigodlweni esincane) -Qaqa Ndiweni

3. Ihlathi -Mgibidwane Hlabangane

4. Amadiba -Mqengana Ndiweni

5. Emambanjeni -Lukhezo Mbambo

6. Iliba -Lugobe Mlotshwa

7. Ilanga -Nungu Khumalo

8. Imfakuceba -Mgqengwana Ndiweni

9. Isizinda -Mnengeza Fuyana

10. Dibinhlangu -Nungu Thebe

11. Ingwegwe -Mkhanyeli Masuku

12. Umsizi -Mcetshwa Masuku

13. Inkani -Sobukhazi Mkhwananzi

14. Amagoloza -Dlekeza Thebe

15. Amahlokohloko -Mbambelele Hlabangane

16. Amathwala -Gwadi Mlotshwa


1. Mzinyathi -Majijili Gwebu

2. Amabhukudwana -Mayeke Mthethwa

3. Inteleko -Magazi Tshili

4. Intunta -Mhabahaba Mkhwanazi

5. Isiphezi -Ngwadi Sigola

6. Imbelesi -Mfanembuzi Mzizi

7. Intshamathe -Ntolwane Xaba

8. Uyengo -Mlotha Khumalo

9. Inhlambane -Thambo Ndiweni

10. Intemba -Xukuthwayo Mlotshwa

11. Amatshetshe -Sifo Masuku

12. Inyathi -Ntabeni Gwebu

13. Imbizo -Mtshana Khumalo


1. Amagogo -Maqhekeni Sithole

2. Inyanda -Mlagela Khumalo

3. Umncwazi -Mtotobi Mlilo

4. Indutshwa -Mabulana Ndlovu

5. Babambeni -Dakamela Ncube

6. Zwangandaba -Mbiko kaMadlenya Masuku

7. Ezimnyama -Mtshamayi Ndiweni

8. Nyamayendlovu -Mkhokhi Masuku

9. Usaba -Mpukana Ndiweni

10. Amatshova -Ngubo Sithole

11.Ululwane -Mahlathini Vundla

12. Iguqa -Mletshe Ndiweni

13. Inqama -Somhlolo Mathema

14. Induba -Lotshe Hlabangane

15. Ujinga -Mletshe Ndiweni

16. Ingubo -Mazwi Gumede

17. Umbuyazwe -Mhliphi Ndiweni

18.Impande -Sindisa Mpofu

19. Umnquma -Maphongo Mabhena

20. Izinala/Izisongo -Mabuyana Ndiweni

21. Inqobo - Mthini Mphoko Ndlovu

The royal Khumalo family of Mthwakazi

King Lobhengula’s son, Mpezeni, Njube and Nguboyenja

The relatives of King Lobhengula Khumalo and close associates of the royal Khumalo Family after the British White Occupation of Mthwakazi have hardly been covered in historic documentation. With descriptions of Lobhengula’s last royal sons (Sidojiwa, Mpezeni, Njube and Nguboyenja), to his cousins and the Khumalo family praise singer, this article sheds light in that area.

There is little information about the royal Khumalo family before or after the Occupation of Mthwakazi by the white settlers. Consequently there is limited documented information about Lobhengula's children and his relatives. We give an overview of some of the relatives of the Khumalo at the time of the occupation and after.

MPEZENI LOBHENGULA aka Mpezeni Khumalo

Mpezeni was born in Bulawayo in about 1880, the second of the four 'royal' sons of King Lobhengula who survived into the white settler Occupation period. His mother was Lomalongwe, according to Ntabeni Khumalo, she was the most important wife after Lozikeyi and consequently Mpezeni might have been chosen to succeed his father Lobhengula. Ginyilitshe, the royal Khumalo family praise-singer in the twentieth century, differed in this view though of the likely successor. Of all Lobhengula's sons, Mpezeni was considered to the best of the bunch. As with Njube and Nguboyenja, the real importance of Mpezeni was that he was of the age to be taken by Cecil J Rhodes to Cape Town for education in 1894. Read more about Mpezeni Lobhengula Khumalo's life here

SIDOJIWA LOBHENGULA a.k.a Sidojiwa Khumalo

Sidojiwa was born at Nsindeni in about 1888, the youngest of the four 'royal' sons of Lobhengula who survived into the Occupation period. His mother was Ngotsha, a sister of Lozigeyi Dhlodhlo, she was presumably one of the younger wives as she lived on as a pensioner until 1955. A young Shona slave who had charge of Sidojiwa at the time of the war of 1893-4 gave his reminiscences some sixty years later and claimed that the two youngsters tried to get to Gazaland on foot but Sidojiwa's age does not seem to fit with the story, which is rather muddled chronologically anyway.

Being that much younger than Nguboyenja, Sidojiwa was not sent to Cape Town after his father's death and he probably lived in the Insiza District with his mother under the control of a guardian, former induna Masongo, who married his mother. Read more about Sidojiwa Lobhengula Khumalo's life here.

The sons of King Lobhengula: Mpezeni, Njube and Nguboyenja Khumalo in Cape Town between 1895 and 1898


These men were brothers of Lobhengula. Makwelambila was said to be the youngest son of Mzilikazi but there is doubt on the authenticity of this. It is said he was as old as 108, when he died on 12 August 1943, for this would have made him a grown man in the 1870 when Nyanda, also son of Mzilikazi was only a youngster. Makwelambila became a firm Christian a few years before his death. Joyi was active in Nyamanda's various manoeuvres and it is possible that he was cousin to Nyamanda rather than his uncle (that is, a son of one of Lobhengula's brothers).


These men were sons of Lobila, brother of Lobhengula. Madhloli was Nyamanda's closest associate and it was he, accompanied by Ntando, who took the Khumalos' second petition to Cape Town and saw the High Commissioner in 1920.


He is referred to as a son of Bayane, brother of Mhwaba and Madhloli, but also as a son of Zabingane (Qalingana), a son of Mzilikazi and Lomokazi (sister of Mbigo), later a Headman under Chief Maladaniso. In 1909 he had been deputed by the Khumalos to visit Njube in Grahamstown. He died in 1936

GULA Khumalo

He was a son of Bozongwana Khumalo who was brother of Mlugulu and who had been keeper of Mzilikazi's grave. Gula later became Treasurer of the Matabeleland Home Society. In 1942 he was referred to as a Native Messenger of influence among the Mthwakazi.


He has not been indentified yet, but presumably he was the Hawubasa who joined Nyamanda's deputation about land in 1920, and, as Hawubasa ka Kumalo, told the story of 'The first visit of the MaMthwakazi to Rhodesia'. In 1937 he was described as one of the three elders of the Mthwakazi.


His father buried Mzilikazi, and was the herald sent by Lobhengula to Mbigo to call the Zwangendaba to submit in 1870. One of his daughters, that is Simon's sister, Moro, became one of Lobhengula's wives. Simon became a Methodist at some stage and was sent to the Nengubo Training Institution (Waddilove) in 1910 where he was described as 'very good and reliable'; at the end of his three years training he was sent to the Bulawayo Circuit.


Manja is generally referred to as a cousin of Lobhengula - but he referred to his father, Somhlolo, as Lobhengula's cousin. Elsewhere he is described as son of Mpondo Khumalo, third in line to the royal family. He appears to have been born about 1870 and after the Risings, was educated by the Wesleyan Methodists, like Ntando. After working in Kimberley, he returned to Matabeleland where he became influential in various causes on behalf of the Mthwakazi, notably the Ilihlo Lomuzi, a movement which later expanded under his initiative into the Matabeleland Home Society. (source, edited from: Bulawayo1872.com)

History of Mthwakazi Kingdom

Outside of the borders of the Kingdom of Mthwakazi, the remainder of what is now Zimbabwe was mostly occupied by the Shona, a tribe that originated in eastern Congo and moved down Africa over a period of more than 800 years until around 1200 AD they crossed the Zambezi River and colonised much of modern Zimbabwe. 

For 100 000 years or more, one people occupied central and southern Africa. The Bushmen or San grew no crops and kept no cattle, but hunted game and gathered wild fruits. They lived in caves where they drew their life in pictures on the wall and this art - some of the oldest in the world - can still be seen today.

Lozikeyi Dlodlo, Queen of the Mthwakazi Nation

Inkosikazi Lozikeyi Dlodlo is a well known historical figure and heroine in this part of the world. She was King Lobhengula’s Indlovukazi (Great Queen) who later became the de facto regent of the Mthwakazi kingdom soon after King Lobhengula’s alleged disappearance and for the better part of Matabeleland’s early colonial history.

Oral and recorded history has it that Indlovukazi Lozikeyi Dlodlo played an unrivalled and heroic role in the Anglo-Matabele war of 1896. This war is also known as Imfazo or Impi Yehlok’elibomvu (The war of the Red Axe). She was both a leader and an inspirational figure to the warriors who fought hard to reclaim our fallen kingdom from the oppressive colonial system. In a few words she was the shining star of the great war of 1896!
Whilst Indlovukazi Lozikeyi Dlodlo’s heroine status is well known to some of us in Matabeleland she is virtually unknown to the rest of Zimbabwe.

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Queen Loziba

Pictures: Burial site of Queen Loziba, a heritage site needing serious uplifting and development...

ULoziba wayezalwa nguPhahlane wakoThebe. Wayengomunye wamakhosikazi eNkosi uMzilikazi. Wayengunina wendodakazi eyayithiwa nguLobitshi, abanye babembiza ngoBitshi. ULobitshi lo nguye owagana uLinganisa Dlodlo, owayezalwa yiNkosi yamaHlubi uMehlomakhulu kaMpangazitha wakoMthimkhulu. ULinganisa wenziwa iNduna yeMakhandeni.

NgaseNdlabunondo, uLoziba waqokwa ukuba ngunkosikazi weNkosi ngaseMhlangeni, walindwa libutho leNyathi. INkosi yake yahlala khona eMhlangeni ngesikhathi uLoziba esengundlunkulu. UMtshede (Robert Moffat) wakha isonto lakhe ngaseMhlangeni ngoba efuna ukutshedela eNkosini, eyayisihlala loLoziba emzini weMhlangeni, abe eseyiguqula ibe ngumKhristu.

ULoziba watshona ngo 1863. Ingcwaba lakhe liseMhlangeni. Ngemuva kokutshona kwe Ndlovukazi iNkosi yathuthela e Mhlahlandlela lapho yafika yakha khona isigodlo sayo sokucina. Lamuhla iMhlangeni isibizwa ngeNyathi, kuthathelwa ku- Inyati Mission kaMtshede, uMtshede yena wayethathele egameni lebutho iNyathi, elalilinde umuzi weMhlangeni. Ingcwaba lakhe alisindelwanga ngoba liyisiNtu. Kulesikolo eNyathi esithiwa yiLoziba Primary School kuthathelwa kuliNdlovukazi.

Okwakhathesi i Ndlovukazi ilele ngaphansi komthunzi wezihlahla zo xakuxaku

Umlando wethulwa nguArnold Mayibongwe Nkala, ulogwalo olusendleleni oluthi 'AbeThwakazi'.

King Lobhengula's box of sovereigns with Gold – Stolen by the British in 1893

Following the end of the war, one of King Lobhengula's iziNduna said that just before Forbes' column had reached the Shangani on 3 December 1893, the king had attempted to buy the pioneers off. According to this story, two Mthwakazi messengers, Petchan and Sehuloholu, had been given a box of gold sovereigns, and instructed to intercept the column before it reached the river. They were to tell the whites that the king admitted defeat, and offered this money in tribute if the BSAP (British South Africa Police) would turn back "Gold is the only thing that will stop the white men,"King Lobhengula reportedly said.  Petchan and Sehuloholu reportedly reached the column on 2 December 1893, and gave the money and the message to two men in the rear guard. No man who had been attached to the column confirmed this, but company authorities thought it unlikely that Mthwakazi Kingdom as well as the messengers thereof would have simply invented such a story.  Two officers' batmen were accused of accepting the gold, then keeping it for themselves and not passing on the message. The evidence against them was inconclusive, but they were found guilty and sentenced to 14 years' hard labour by the Resident Magistrate.  They were released after two years, however, because the maximum term the Magistrate could give was three months; the convictions were ultimately quashed altogether on a re-assessment of the evidence by the High Commissioner's legal team.

Maxim gun

The First Matabele War of 1893 was the first wartime use of a Maxim gun by Britain and it proved to have a decisive impact. In less than optimal situations, such as hilly or mountainous terrain or dense vegetation with poor lines of sight, the Maxim gun resulted in little direct impact on enemy deaths. But as a psychological weapon, the Maxim gun was truly phenomenal. It generated a sense of fear in Mthwakazi and made the British South Africa Police seem invincible. In one engagement, for example, 700 company soldiers with just four Maxim guns fought off 5,000 Mthwakazi warriors.


Johnson spent nearly three months at Bulawayo trying to coax Lobhengula into giving him ‘the road’ to Mashonaland. Lobhengula was suspicious of Johnson’s intentions, interrogating him time and again. His councillors were even more hostile. ‘I cannot understand this digging for gold,’ Lobhengula told Johnson. ‘There is no place in my heart where you can dig for gold. But I will look for such a place. I am sorry you have come so far for nothing, but my head is troubled at present. Time is made for slaves; therefore there is no need for hurry.’

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List of Mthwakazi surnames

Here is the list of Mthwakazi surnames as found in the tribes making up the Mthwakazi Kingdom, including but not limited to - (ZULU, XHOSA, MTHWAKAZI, SWAZI, KHALANGA, LOZWI AND TSWANA)

Download list of Mthwakazi surnames

Mzilikazi, the Ndebele and Christianity religion

The Ndebele had first contact with Christian missionaries when Mzilikazi consented to the London Missionary Society's coming to Zimbabwe. Mzilikazi consented to the coming of the missionaries led by Robert Moffat in 1867 strictly for non religious purposes. King Mzilikazi had hoped to use the missionaries as agents for trade with white traders from South Africa.

The first group of missionaries entered the country in September 1859 led by Robert Moffat, and the Ndebele's reception of the troop was influenced by secular and religious factors.

As soon as they entered the Ndebele territory, the missionaries were treated circumspectly. The missionaries had reported to the King Mzilikazi that their draught oxen had lung sickness and King Mzilikazi had ordered the settlers to be quarantined so that the disease would not spread to the rest of the nation. The King also arranged for the medical treatment of the missionaries by a witch doctor, an Inyanga.

One of the missionaries, William Sykes had lost his wife before entering Zimbabwe and the Ndebele believed that he was carrying a bad omen and therefore he needed to be cleansed together with the rest of the crew.

While in quarantine, the missionaries committed a grave act which the Ndebele interpreted as witchcraft. One of the missionaries, Goliath, caused alarm when he grabbed an Ndebele boy by his hair, an act associated with bewitching the boy. The missionaries were put on trial but only through Moffat's pleas of mercy to his friend King Mzilikazi were the missionaries allowed to get away with a fine.

It is thus clear from these early events that King Mzilikazi wanted to make it clear to the missionaries that if they wanted to live peaceable within the Ndebele Kingdom, it was on condition that they respected local traditions and religion.

Between 1860 and 1862, the London Missionary Society, totally failed to penetrate the Ndebele kingdom. During the years up to Mzilikazi's death, the missionaries only managed to maintain links with people to whom they tried to impart their propaganda but they had little success.

Relations between the Ndebele and the missionaries were nothing but good.

The coming of the missionaries had brought sickness to the nation, a lung sickness that saw the decimation of the Ndebele cattle, as over 10 000 cattle had died of the sickness by 1962.such misfortune was interpreted by the Ndebele as a sign of bad omen associated with the whites, but the anti missionary feeling reached its climax when the Ndebele put pressure on King Mzilikazi to disallow the coming of yet another missionary crew in 1862. King Mzilikazi told Moffat that if any missionary dare to come into the kingdom, he would be killed.

Another blow to the missionaries cause was in July 1862 when Mzilikazi ordered the execution of Manqeba, the most influential ally of the missionaries in their quest to infiltrate Ndebele society. Manqeba was to be executed together with one of his interpreters, Siama. The two were staunch supporters of the idea of opening up the Ndebele kingdom to the missionaries. However it was alleged that Manqeba had plotted to kill the king. Manqeba had allegedly slaughtered a crocodile in the Mbembesi River, extracted its liver, mixed it up with magic and then used the concoction to poison his majesty. Thus he was executed together with his close accomplice.

Between 1860 and 1862, the London Missionary Society, totally failed to penetrate the Ndebele kingdom. During the years up to Mzilikazi's death, the missionaries only managed to maintain links with people to whom they tried to impart their propaganda but they had little success.

In the early years, the king was willing to assist the missionaries in their quest.

He would call up the people to meet at Inyathi cattle Kraal for Sunday services. However when it became clear that the missionaries were bent on despising and rebuking Ndebele tradition and culture, Mzilikazi was unhappy and he even stopped listening to the missionaries who by 1862 had been allowed to preach in three towns. Soon the people's willingness to learn was dying but the persistent efforts of the missionaries allowed them greater success during the latter years of Lobengula's reign.

The problem with the missionaries is that they sometimes went too far, as they condemned harmless local customs such as mourning rituals. The missionaries declared that such practice was a clear indication that they have no hope any more than the gentiles. Such assaults on the Ndebele naturally alienated the people. The missionaries did not manage to overcome Ndebele resistance to Christianity, even by trying to identify Christianity with western medicine. The Ndebele remained perceptive enough to distinguish between the two aspects of western culture. They eagerly availed themselves for material benefits of the missionaries, but stood firm against the Christian religion.

Thus, the missionaries failed to influence the Ndebele during Mzilikazi's reign as the people were not interested in a Christianity which threatened their such feelings were worsened by natural disasters which the Ndebele continued to associate with settling of the whites.



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